Pesticide residues in beehive matrices are dependent on collection time and matrix type but independent of proportion of foraged oilseed rape and agricultural land in foraging territory

Pesticide residues in bee products is still a major issue. However, the relations to botanical source and
land use characteristics are not clear. The large variability of residues detected questions the suitability of
bee-collected- and other hive materials as indicators for environmental contamination. The aim of our
study was to clarify whether different beehive matrices contain similar pesticide residues, and how these
are correlated with forage preferences and land use types in foraging areas. We tested bee-collected
pollen, beebread, honey, nurse bees and honey bee larvae for the presence of concurrently used agricultural
pesticides in Estonia. Samples were collected at the end of May and mid-July to include the main
crop in northern region e winter and spring oilseed rape (Brassica napus).

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